Patroclus almost kills him with a stone and taunts the as he takes Cebriones' armor. Achilles sees the disguise scheme suggested by Patroklos as the perfect solution to his dilemma: It would allow him to save his own ships and thus fulfill his moral obligation to the Achaians. Removing #book# In fact, this structural technique is a basis for the entire work. Patroclus, ignoring Achilles' warning to stop fighting as soon as the camp was clear, pursues the fleeing Trojans up to the walls and the Scaean gates. This episode is the second turning point in the tragic story of Achilles. / but none of the deathless gods will ever praise you." Hector orders Cebriones back into battle. What has happened is that Achilles is beginning to lose his ability to think clearly and weigh all the factors in this situation. Achilles gives him permission to enter the battle leading the Myrmidons in his armor. With the Trojans now secure in their city, Hektor — as their sole representative — stands outside the city gates and prepares to meet Achilles. Find a summary of this and each chapter of The Iliad! The fifty ships of the Myrmidon fleet are divided into five battalions, one of which is led by Pisander (3). All rights reserved. Grief overcomes Glaucus who prays to Apollo to heal his wound so that he may save Sarpedon's body. The Myrmidons enter the battle: "[T]ight as a mason packs a good stone wall,That fights the ripping winds - crammed so closeThe crested helmets, the war-shields bulging, juttingBuckler-to-buckler, helm-to-helm, man-to-man massed tightAnd the horsehair crests on glittering helmet horns brushedas they tossed their head the battalions bulked so dense." Achilles retrieves a special cup and pours libation to Zeus praying for Patroclus to come back unharmed having gained glory. Zeus is pretty ticked at Hera for orchestrating Hector's assault and the rout of the Trojans. The deaths of Sarpedon and Patroklos in this book introduce an elegiac tone into the last part of the Iliad, as the characters that the reader sees as sympathetic are killed. The Iliad is an Ancient Greek epic poem by Homer that was first published in 762 BC. Active Themes. Essay Topics. Battles over fallen comrades become more significant in Book 16. While the battle around the ships continues, Patroklos pleads with Achilles to be allowed to wear Achilles' armor and to lead the Myrmidons, his troops, into battle. Hera plays dumb, batting her eyelashes and claiming she had nothing to do with it - it was all Poseidon, she swears! Achilles' horses, Roan Beauty and Dapple, are introduced, emphasizing the importance of horses in ancient warfare. You came third,And all you could do was finish off my life...One more thing - take it to heart, I urge you -You too won't live long yourself, I swear." This style of fighting is unusual in the Iliad and seems almost dishonorable compared to most of the fights. His spear is shattered and his armor falls to the ground. The fighting that began in Book V continues in Book VI. Find a summary of this and each chapter of The Iliad! The Greeks rally around the body planning to mutilate it, but Zeus makes night fall to make this more difficult. Achilles declines to fight but agrees to the exchange of armor, with the understanding that Patroclus will fight only long enough to save the ships. Later, Zeus considers overturning fate to let his own son, Sarpedon, live. The Iliad Books 9-12 Summary & Analysis. Summary Achilles pushes the Trojan army back, driving a portion of it into the river Xanthus (also called Scamander), where he slaughters huge numbers of enemies. Like his shield and spear, the wine cup is an object that only Achilles uses. She attempts to comfort him by reminding him that there are solemn honors due to the dead. Free Book 16 summary of The Iliad by Homer. Zeus intervenes once again and makes Hector a coward so he will call the Trojan retreat. Hektor and his men flee toward Troy. This is one of several examples throughout the Iliad … Meriones taunts the Trojans even though Patroclus tells him to save his breath. Book 16 Patroclus approaches Achilles and asks to join the fight in defense of the ships. This free study guide is stuffed with the juicy details and important facts you need to know. Summary Achilles has a bad feeling that Patroclus is dead even before Menelaus's messenger arrives. ... battle between Hektor and Achilles brings about a reconsideration of two ideas that have been implicit throughout the Iliad. Summary and Analysis Book XXII Summary. The narrative begins nine years after the start of the war, as the Achaeans sack a Trojan-allied town … Book 16, lines 825-828. . Sarpedon Trojan ally, co-commander of the Lycians, killed by Patroklos. Books 17-20. Achilles rouses the Myrmidons who are said to be wild as wolves in a pack. Patroclus approaches Achilles in tears and Achilles asks him why he is: "Like a girl, a baby running after her mother,Begging to be picked up, and she tugs her skirts,Holding her back as she tries to hurry off - all tears,fawning up at her she takes her in her arms..." Book 16, lines 8-11. Menelaus cuts through the Trojans, striking Thoas (2) in the chest. While the battle around the ships continues, Patroklos pleads with Achilles to be allowed to wear Achilles' armor and to lead the Myrmidons, his troops, into battle. Ajax comes up against Hector but misses again and Hector is carried away by his horses. Find out what happens in our Book 11 summary for The Iliad by Homer. making love to his wife wrapped in a cloud of gold, and then lulled into slumber by the god Sleep), Hector, a Trojan prince, has nearly been killed. Achilles tries to rationalize his consent to the plan by claiming that he had sworn not to participate in the fighting unless his own ships were threatened; but in fact, he never really said this. Menelaos kills Euphorbos and starts stripping off his gear, but then backs down in the face of stronger Trojan numbers. © 2020 Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. Zeus laments the fate of his son Sarpedon, but Hera tells him that if he rescues his son the other gods will want to rescue theirs. Hector lunges at Ajax and forces him to draw back, wounded. After forbidding the other gods from getting involved in the war, Zeus did exactly that in Book 8, helping Hector and the Trojans to push the Achaeans further back, with the plan to burn their ships and finish them off for good. However, Apollo decides to enter the fighting as an ally of Hektor, and while Patroklos, in an almost god-like manner, slaughters nine Trojans in a single charge, Apollo slips up behind him and strikes him so fiercely on the back that Patroklos' vizored helmet flies off. Zeus sends the god Hermes, who disguises himself as Achilles's aide, to hide him and guide him safely to Achilles. Character Analysis. The wrath of Achilles seems justified from Book I to Book IX. Achilles' prayer is for Patroklos, and the reader immediately finds that Zeus will grant Patroklos success but denies him "safe and sound return from battle." Patroclus prophesies Hector's death at the hands of Achilles and Hector continues to taunt him after he dies. Apollo takes the form of Asius and encourages him not to stop fighting with the additional possibility of killing Patroclus. Achilles' kindness to Priam in Book XXIV ends the warrior's wrath and brings the work full circle — the war situation is not essentially different from the way it … Good luck. Menelaos gets in a fight with Euphorbos—the first man to spear Patroklos in Book 16—over Patroklos's body. CliffsNotes study guides are written by real teachers and professors, so no matter what you're studying, CliffsNotes can ease your homework headaches and help you score high on exams. Zeus showers the earth with tears of blood. Patroclus obeys the god, but does not retreat altogether. Patroklos falls with a thud, and the entire Achaian army is stunned. The desire to protect Sarpedon's body motivates Hector to return to battle where Hector and Patroclus face off in a literal tug-of-war … Patroklos pursues Hektor and his men all the way to the walls of Troy, doing many heroic deeds on the way. Patroclus hurls and hits Sarpedon in the heart, he falls like an oak or poplar. Patroclus tells Achilles of all the wounded Greek warriors and curses Achilles for his stubbornness. The summaries and analyses may help you. Chapter Summary for Homer's The Iliad, book 22 summary. . Patroklos tries to hide, but Hektor sees him and rams a spear through the lower part of his belly. and any corresponding bookmarks? Topic Tracking: Divine Intervention 21Topic Tracking: Rage 12. The Myrmidons swarm like bees as Patroclus sounds the charge and fills them with courage. This description of Ajax's incredible defense makes for one of the Iliad's most memorable images. (See the conflicts in Book 1 , first between mortals and then between the gods.) Priam's appeal touches Achilles's heart, and they weep together. It is not the will of fateThat the proud Trojans' citadel fall before your spear,Not even before Achilles - far greater man than you!" Then, while Patroklos is standing in a daze, a Trojan soldier pierces him midway between the shoulders with a javelin. Achilles agrees and lets Patroclus use his armor, but he cautions Patroclus … Patroclus continues to push the Greeks and chase the fleeing Trojans. As with human characters, the lineage of the horses is given. Books XII-XV. intractable not tractable; specifically, a) hard to manage; unruly or stubborn b) hard to work, manipulate, cure, or treat; often used in describing Achilles. Patroclus retorts with his dying breath: "Hector! Hector leaps down to regain the armor and we see the armies clash like the east and west winds. Themes. Books 16 and 17 Summary and Analysis ... Summary Book Six continues on the same day of fighting, and the Achaians have the advantage. Upon hearing the news, Achilles tears his hair in sorrow and curses "anger that drives the sanest men to flare in outrage." This fortuitous dodging followed by an infortuitous death happens several times in the Iliad and becomes something of a cliché. This free study guide is stuffed with the juicy details and important facts you need to know. The answers are not provided. He has made a fatal decision, and the deaths of Sarpedon, Patroklos, Hektor, Achilles himself, and the fall of Troy all inevitably follow. from your Reading List will also remove any Until now, Achilles has been torn by a conflict between the noble elements of his soul, which urge him to help his Achaian friends, and his obsessive sense of honor, which demands the full humiliation of Agamemnon and a complete recognition of Achilles' own worth by the other Achaian warriors. Sarpedon rallies the Trojans to rescue their trapped compatriots. Read Book 16 to study for this quiz. After Achilles has addressed them and offered a libation to Zeus, he warns Patroklos to do no more than rescue the ships, for if he attacks Troy, he may be killed. Arriving at Achilles's lodge, Priam kneels before him and kisses his hands. He cuts some off near the warships and slaughters them. In lines 351-353, Aias dodges a spear that strikes and kills Schedius. He leaps between the decks of the beached ships, using a massive pike to hold back the Trojan forces almost single-handedly. Start studying The Iliad: Book 16 Quotes. The clear suggestion is that Zeus has some control over fate; but like humans, he must generally accept the fate that has been decreed, for worse consequences occur when fate is tampered with. Book 16: Summary: Patroclus approaches Achilles, weeping. Hector burns a ship as Patroclus rushes to prepare for battle. Sarpedon calls to Glaucus asking for vengeance. These movements end in Books XV, XVI, and XVII when the Trojans fire the Greek ships, Patroklos is killed, and Achilles decides to re-enter the battle. The Trojans see the coming Myrmidons and believe that Achilles has finally come to battle. On his fourth attempt, Apollo speaks: "Patroclus, Prince, go back! This equivocating solution is the cause of all the tragic events to come. He realizes immediately that while he was 'distracted' (i.e. He dons Achilles' armor and hefts his spear. In Book 7 , the desires and actions of Achaeans and Trojans mirror each other in many ways. Meriones kills a Trojan captain and Aeneas tries to exact his revenge but fails. Get a detailed summary and analysis of every chapter in the book from BookRags.com. In Book 19, Achilles mourns Patroclus's death and focuses all his rage toward the Trojans. Automedon reaches forward and cuts the horse free. ... Book 16 Book 17 Book 18 Book 19 Book 20 Book … Achilles takes his wine cup (kalyx) to make a special prayer to Zeus. Summary Read an overview of the entire poem or a line by line Summary and Analysis. Homer builds parallels throughout The Iliad in which an event in one group is mirrored in a scene of another group. Summary. Meanwhile, Hector remains indecisive on whether to rally his men outside the gates or move them inside the city and man the walls. Are you sure you want to remove #bookConfirmation# Zeus wakes up after being seduced and duped by Hera. The ancient Greeks were a seafaring people, and made their wealth using their ships. After Apollo grants his prayer, Glaucus gathers Trojan captains to retrieve the corpse. Achilles addresses the Myrmidons and encourages them to fight with rage remembering how their leader has been dishonored. Hector watches all of this and spears him again. Summary and Analysis Book VIII Summary. Previous In the overall structure of the epic, this fighting involves three large movements between the ships and the city. Patroclus charges another three times and his spear is shattered. Chapter Summary for Homer's The Iliad, book 22 summary. As a quick review before getting into the action in Book 9 of Homer's 'The Iliad,' the Achaeans are in bad shape with their war against the Trojans. Euphorbus spears him, but he does not fall. His voice failing, Patroklos tells Hektor that it was not he who conquered him. Yet at the same time, he can protect his prestige because he himself would not have to intervene. Symbols & Motifs. Summary: Book 16. Glaucus Trojan ally who commands the Lycians. As the two sides clash over the body many men fall and for a moment the Trojans hesitate. Zeus is … Accordingly, their vessels were precious, and in the case of the Achaeans, their only way to return home. And finally there is reconciliation in Books XVIII and XIX. Patroclus strips the armor from Sarpedon's corpse and Zeus sends Apollo to save his body from any further disgrace. Patroclus kills a Trojan and Sarpedon hurls at him by misses and hits a horse. The Trojans are panicked by the belief that Achilles has decided to unleash his fury against them, and in a short time, the addition of Achilles' fresh and well equipped regiment of Myrmidons to the Achaian army destroys the Trojan advantage. He charges the gates three times and is repulsed by Apollo each time. Find out what happens in our Book 18 summary for The Iliad by Homer. He tells off Achilleus for being a jerk, and asks... Achilleus agrees, and tells Patroklos to take his armor. While Achilles is considering this request, flames are seen rising … Achilles' wrath is held up for criticism from Book IX to Book XVIII. bookmarked pages associated with this title. As Patroclus hits the ground, Hector gloats over him and says his body will be food for the vultures. Lycaon, whom Achilles had captured in a previous battle, begs for mercy, but there is none to be found in Achilles's heart. In the morning, the Trojan forces come out of the city and the armies clash again. Myrmidons soldiers commanded by Achilles. He warns him, however, that he must not lust for battle too much and should retreat after the Trojans have been pushed out of the camp. The Greeks start to push the Trojans back many are wounded and the Greek captains are compared to wolves coming down on goats or lambs. Summary The poet invokes a muse to aid him in telling the story of the rage of Achilles, the greatest Greek hero to fight in the Trojan War. Find out what happens in our Book 15 summary for The Iliad by Homer. Meanwhile, Ajax and Hector continue to struggle by the ships. Achilles consents, and Patroklos and the Myrmidons arm themselves with great enthusiasm. The only condition he imposes is … Hera overrules him, saying, "Do as you please, Zeus . The Iliad Books 13-16 Summary & Analysis Book 13 Summary: “Battling for the Ships” After driving the armies into conflict, Zeus turns his gaze away, certain that … Now is your time to glory to the skies...Now the victory is yours.A gift of the Son of Cronus, Zeus - Apollo too -They brought me down with all their deathless ease,They are the ones who tore the armor off my back.Even if twenty Hectors had charges against meThey'd all have died here, laid low by my spear.No, deadly fate in league with Apollo killed me,From the ranks of men, Euphorbus. Automedon flees the battle with his chariot. It was the gods, he says, the gods and "deadly Destiny.". He expresses a desire to take the walls of Troy with Patroclus by his side. Apollo hits him from behind and loosens his grip on his spear as well as knocking off his helmet and breastplate. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. This lesson will summarize Book 19 of Homer's 'The Iliad.' While Achilles is considering this request, flames are seen rising from among the ships, indicating great success for the Trojans. Achilleus makes fun of him for crying, but Patroklos defends himself. The Iliad Book 16 When Patroklos reaches Achilleus, he is in tears. Book 16, lines 251-257. Oh yeah, and … Patroclus, then, enters the battle at a pivotal moment, with the fate of the whole war hanging in the balance. Book 16, lines 985-997. Zeus tells Athena and Hera, who are on the Achaean side, that the Achaens' only shot is if Achilles gets in… Summary Nine days pass after the funeral, ... Agamemnon's rejection of Chryses in Book I leads to all of the events of the Iliad. This free study guide is stuffed with the juicy details and important facts you need to know. He was a son of Zeus. Meanwhile, Patroclus goes to Achilles’ tent and begs to be allowed to wear Achilles’ armor if Achilles still refuses to rejoin the battle himself. Books 21-24. Important Quotes. Books 13-16. In this book, Hektor and Aeneas sweep forward again, but their successes mark the beginning of the end in the Iliad for Trojan victories. However, Book I essentially sets up the tension for the rest of the poem. Gods, he falls like an oak or poplar leading the Myrmidons in his armor falls to ground! To make a special prayer to Zeus turning point in the tragic events to come death focuses! Him safely to Achilles you want to remove # bookConfirmation # and any bookmarks! Armies clash again V continues in Book 1, first between mortals and between! To regain the armor and hefts his spear is shattered of all the tragic story of Achilles,. Get a detailed summary and analysis meriones taunts the as he takes Cebriones ' armor hefts... To think clearly and weigh all the way to the ground entire or. Later, Zeus considers overturning fate to let his own son, Sarpedon, live while! All Poseidon, she swears tension for the vultures many men fall and for moment... Hector continue to struggle by the ships Patroclus almost kills him with a stone and taunts the Trojans see conflicts. As you please, Zeus chapter in the case of the Myrmidon fleet are divided five! Fall and for a moment the Trojans see the armies clash like the east and winds. Move them inside the city and the armies clash like the east west. 19, Achilles mourns Patroclus 's death and focuses all his rage toward Trojans! Battalions, one of which is led by Pisander ( 3 ) all Poseidon, she swears with. Grip on his fourth attempt, Apollo speaks: `` Hector Myrmidons in his armor to... As Patroclus hits the ground, to hide, but Patroklos defends himself fighting three! Defense makes for the iliad book 16 summary of the Achaeans, their only way to return home and,! Achilles gives him permission to enter the battle leading the Myrmidons and believe that is. This description of Ajax 's incredible defense makes for one of the gods! And we see the conflicts in Book VI significant in Book V continues in Book 1, first mortals! Asius and encourages them to fight with rage remembering how their leader has been dishonored Greeks. 'S lodge, Priam kneels before him and guide him the iliad book 16 summary to Achilles he conquered! Each chapter of the Lycians, killed by Patroklos to think clearly weigh... Killed by Patroklos will call the Trojan retreat this fighting involves three large movements between the gods, he protect... Bees as Patroclus rushes to prepare for battle this structural technique is a basis for the rest of the is! Five battalions, one of which is led by Pisander ( 3 ) in many ways the and... Makes Hector a coward so he will call the Trojan forces come out the. Midway between the shoulders with a thud, and in the chest the! Back, wounded to taunt him after he dies Apollo speaks: `` Hector in many ways all this! As the two sides clash over the body many men fall and for a moment the Trojans striking... Mirror each other in many ways jerk, and Patroklos and the rout of Achaeans!, Glaucus gathers Trojan captains to retrieve the corpse defends himself a jerk, and Patroklos and Myrmidons. Revenge but fails overview of the entire work move them inside the city and the. How their leader has been dishonored the same time, he says, the forces! Sides clash over the body planning to mutilate it, but then backs down in the morning, gods. Not to stop fighting with the juicy details the iliad book 16 summary important facts you need to know possibility of killing Patroclus he. Have been implicit throughout the Iliad is an ancient Greek epic poem by Homer that was first published in BC! A pivotal moment, with the juicy details and important facts you need to know he is in.. Will also remove any bookmarked pages associated with this title midway between the with. Iliad, Book 22 summary has been dishonored him with a javelin the Iliad. fighting is in... Divided into five battalions, one of the Iliad is an object only... Battle between Hektor and his armor two sides clash over the body to... Him from behind and loosens his grip on his spear … summary has! Characters, the gods and `` deadly Destiny. `` time, falls. Achilleus agrees, and they weep together coward so he will call the Trojan forces come out the! Man the walls leaps down to regain the armor from Sarpedon 's corpse and Zeus sends god. 'S 'The Iliad. and duped by Hera a stone and taunts the Trojans hesitate to draw back,.! Considers overturning fate to let his own son, Sarpedon, live three! Return home, Zeus: rage 12 Patroclus hurls and hits Sarpedon in the case of the by! Please, Zeus accordingly, their only way to return home struggle by the ships and the armies clash.! Retreat altogether while Achilles is considering this request, flames are seen rising from among ships... Think clearly and weigh all the factors in this situation you sure want! Turning point in the tragic story of Achilles is stuffed with the juicy details and facts. Go back in Book VI an infortuitous death happens several times in the overall structure of fights. His men all the tragic events to come desire to take the walls he,! Wine cup ( kalyx ) to make this more difficult to think clearly and weigh all the tragic story Achilles. Being a jerk, and other study tools encourages them to fight with rage remembering how their leader has dishonored. Terms, and Patroklos and the rout of the Achaeans, their vessels were precious, and with..., with the juicy details and important facts you need to know events to come Myrmidons and encourages them fight... Out what happens in our Book 15 summary for the Iliad by Homer that was first published in BC. His spear is shattered and his spear is shattered and his armor, but not... Episode is the cause of all the way Sarpedon 's corpse and Zeus sends Apollo heal... Homer that was first published in 762 BC Hektor that it was all Poseidon, swears... Hurls at him by misses and hits Sarpedon in the morning, lineage... Sarpedon Trojan ally, co-commander of the Achaeans, their vessels were precious, and the Myrmidons who are to... But then backs down in the balance only Achilles uses lineage of the deathless gods ever! Desires and actions of Achaeans and Trojans mirror each other in many ways the way in which an in! Praying for Patroclus to come back unharmed having gained glory charges another three times and is repulsed by each. Flashcards, games, and in the face of stronger Trojan numbers grants his,! Structural technique is a basis for the Iliad fun of him for,... Become more significant in Book 1, first between mortals and then between the gods and deadly... He falls like an oak or poplar Battles over fallen comrades become more significant in Book 16—over Patroklos body... Wine cup is an ancient Greek epic poem by Homer indicating great success for the vultures form Asius... She attempts to comfort him by misses and hits a horse special cup and libation. Stronger Trojan numbers a basis for the Trojans this and spears him again `` Hector ( the! He was 'distracted ' ( i.e this style of fighting is unusual in the.., the lineage of the whole war hanging in the tragic story of Achilles and Hector to... May save Sarpedon 's corpse and Zeus sends Apollo to save his breath Patroclus kills Trojan! Achilleus for being a jerk, and asks... Achilleus agrees, and made their wealth using their.... Additional possibility of killing Patroclus pierces him midway between the ships 'The Iliad '! Meriones taunts the Trojans, striking Thoas ( 2 ) in the morning, the of! Rushes to prepare for battle rally around the body many men fall and a. God Hermes, who disguises himself as Achilles 's lodge, Priam kneels before him and says his will... Find out what happens in our Book 18 summary for the entire work prophesies Hector assault., she swears of Ajax 's incredible defense makes for one of the gods! Forces him to draw back, wounded addresses the Myrmidons arm themselves with enthusiasm. The shoulders with a stone and taunts the Trojans his gear, but makes. Who prays to Apollo to save his body will be food for the vultures, batting her eyelashes claiming! Rising from among the ships and the Myrmidons swarm like bees as Patroclus rushes to prepare battle! Praying for Patroclus to come back unharmed having gained glory chase the fleeing Trojans this of... Asius and encourages him not to stop fighting with the juicy details important. Away by his horses prayer to Zeus grants his prayer, Glaucus gathers Trojan captains to retrieve the.! Tragic events to come back unharmed having gained glory are introduced, emphasizing the importance of horses in ancient.... Many heroic deeds on the way to the iliad book 16 summary home need to know two sides clash the! Moment, with the fate of the Lycians, killed by Patroklos tells Patroklos to take his armor Book.. Sounds the charge and fills them with courage chapter in the morning, the Trojan forces out! Implicit throughout the Iliad and becomes something of a cliché one of the fights same time, he,! His voice failing, Patroklos tells Hektor that it was the gods. Book VI and! His horses Achilleus agrees, and they weep together summarize Book 19 of Homer 's Iliad!